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馬紹爾群島的比基尼島礁

譯自法新社(AFP)2010722消息

Fabrice Randoux巴黎特稿

(巴黎消息)包括太平洋上遙遠的比基尼島礁在內的32處自然與文化瑰寶,將於下週在巴西舉行的會議中互相競逐,以爭取列入聯合國教科文組織《世界遺產名錄》的最高殊榮。

這些被提名的遺產地,是為了試圖加入這個聯合國的文化組織所列出的全球最頂尖處所的名單中,包括了三個之前尚無遺產地列入名錄中的國家的候選地,其中兩個為太平洋小島國馬紹爾群島與吉里巴斯。

馬紹爾群島的領土含括比基尼島礁,美國在1946年為了進行核子試爆,而將此地完全淨空。

此地區的島民在核武試驗中接觸到輻射塵,比基尼島礁的土地也因此遭受輻射線的污染,並在當地住民間引發疾病,最終迫使美國在1990年代進行賠償。

在核武的蕈狀雲爆發以後經過半個多世紀,這個被潔白沙灘與棕櫚樹覆蓋的環狀珊瑚礁列嶼,早已成為潛水客探索海岸邊沈船遺骸的鍾愛地點。

聯合國教科文組織的「世界遺產」印記,由於能引發蓬勃的旅遊事業而成為國家最具價值的資產。對像比基尼島礁這般遙遠的地點也有強大的激勵作用,畢竟去年以來,在全球經濟條件欠佳的情況下,當地的旅遊活動也遭受到極大的衝擊。

另一個在這次全球競逐中具有希望的國家是塔吉克,此次推出的是夢幻般且被皚皚白雪覆蓋山頭的帕米爾山嶺,乃是競爭自然遺產瑰寶的六處遺產地之一。

中國爭取列名的,則是中國東南山脈裡的「丹霞」美麗景象,號稱「自科學觀點,保育工作與自然美景來看,皆具有突出的普遍性價值。」

英國也想在新名單中取得一席之地,為此推出自然學家查爾斯‧達爾文生前宅邸及其周邊的地域,宣稱此地促成他石破天驚的進化論的發展。

而殖民史上的遺跡如今也揚眉吐氣了,澳洲從前流放刑事囚犯的處所與肯亞蒙巴薩港城的奴隸站耶穌堡,都奮力參與這次競爭。

伊朗展現的則是北方大城大布里士極具歷史的巴薩爾市集建築。

來自歐洲的競爭者還有阿姆斯特丹風景如畫的運河,以及西班牙和葡萄牙共推的史前恐龍遺址。

不過,如果因為列名後的都市發展威脅到原所具備的遺產價值,遺產地也可能從名錄中被推下來,去年德國城市德勒斯登因為在古老的中心地帶興建疏導交通的大橋而遭除名,就是一個活生生的案例。

而今年世界遺產委員會預期將會檢討的對象,將是坦尚尼亞的塞倫蓋提動物保護區,因為那裡已規劃於2012年興建一條供汽車通行的公路。

教科文組織評量世界遺產的標準,是根據1972年的《世界遺產公約》。按照規定,世界遺產委員會將在72583在巴西利亞舉行本年的會議,對所有遺產地進行評定。

在此次會議中,也會針對被列入《瀕危世界遺產清單》中的31處遺產地加以審視。「針對那些需要特別關注的遺產地,也可能經決議而將它們加進瀕危清單中。」在聯合國教科文組織的聲明中如是宣告。

今年可能列入瀕危的遺產地中包括了葛拉帕哥斯群島的生態體系,此地在1978年成為首批列名的世界遺產地,然而物種入侵與觀光事業發達而被認定它的價值正日漸喪失。

瀕危清單所顯現的是列名的遺產地「正遭受各種不同的威脅,譬如污染、都市發展、對過度旅遊的管理不當、戰爭和自然災害等。」

☆★☆★☆★☆★
Pacific islands seek UNESCO heritage honour

By Fabrice Randoux (AFP)

2010.07.22

PARIS — Thirty-two natural wonders and cultural treasures including the remote Bikini Atoll in the Pacific are competing to join UNESCO's top world heritage list when it meets in Brazil next week.

The sites are nominated to join 890 already on the United Nations' cultural body's list of the world's top spots, with three new candidates, including two that are specks in the Pacific: the Marshall Islands and Kiribati.

The Marshall Islands include the Bikini Atoll, which were evacuated in 1946 while the United States carried out nuclear weapons tests.

Islanders in the region were touched by fallout from the tests and the ground of Bikini was tainted by radiation, causing illnesses among its inhabitants and leading to US compensation in the 1990s.

Now more than half a century after the mushroom clouds erupted, the ring-shaped coral archipelago of white sand and palms has become a cherished destination for divers who explore shipwrecks off its shore.

The UNESCO World Heritage stamp is a valuable asset for countries since it boosts tourism -- a strong incentive for a remote place like Bikini, whose visitor activities were hit hard last year by tough economic conditions.

Another hopeful in the race for world honours is Tajikistan, whose dramatic snow-capped Pamir mountain range is among six sites vying for recognition as natural heritage treasures.

China, meanwhile, is seeking recognition for its mountainous southeastern Danxia beauty spot which it says offers "outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation and natural beauty."

Britain would like a place on the list for a countryside area around the former house of the naturalist Charles Darwin, said to have fed the development of his groundbreaking theories of evolution.

The heritage of colonial history also rears its head, with former penal sites in Australia and the Fort Jesus slave depot in the port city of Mombasa, Kenya, also in the running.

Iran is presenting the historic bazaars of its northern city of Tabriz.

Among contenders for Europe are Amsterdam's picturesque canals and prehistoric dinosaur sites in Spain and Portugal.

A site can be pulled from the list, however, if later urban developments threaten its heritage value -- as was the case with the German city of Dresden last year after a traffic bridge was built near the old centre.

The committee is this year expected to consider the case of the Serengeti animal reserve in Tanzania, where a motorway is planned in 2012.

The organisation's judges world heritage spots based on a 1972 convention on cultural conservation. Its World Heritage Committee meets in Brasilia from July 25 to August 3 to assess the entries.

At its meeting it is also due to review the conservation of 31 sites on its endangered heritage list.

It "may decide to add to that list new properties whose preservation requires special attention," UNESCO said in a statement.

These may include the delicate ecosystems of the Galapagos Islands, which were named the first world heritage site in 1978 but have been identified as a site where invasive species and tourism are taking a toll.

The danger list features sites "threatened by a variety of problems such as pollution, urban development, poorly managed mass tourism, wars, and natural disasters."


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