Archaeological Sites of Meroe_Sudan_01.jpg  

蘇丹麥羅埃島考古遺址


 

 

【巴黎消息,625 - 咖啡文化景觀(哥倫比亞)文化景觀,麥羅埃島考古遺址(蘇丹),瓦迪拉姆保護區(約旦),義大利的倫巴底——西元568–774年權力之地(義大利)以及法古斯工廠(德國)成為被錄入教科文組織《世界遺產名錄》的新增遺產項目。世界遺產委員會第35屆會議將於下週一繼續申報遺產專案的審議。

哥倫比亞咖啡文化景觀The Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia,哥倫比亞)是可持續的並且富有生產能力的文化景觀的傑出代表,同時它也代表著一項獨一無二的傳統,一項對於全世界的咖啡種植區來說都具有強烈涵義的傳統。這一遺產位於哥倫比亞西部安第斯山脈的中西部山麓之間,由6處農業景觀和18個城市中心所組成。這裏上百年的咖啡種植傳統主要表現為在喬木林中進行小塊種植,以及當地農民為了克服高山環境的不利影響所採取的獨特咖啡種植方式。景觀內的城區主要位於相對平坦的山頂,山頂下方的坡地則分佈著咖啡田。城區建築以受西班牙影響的安蒂奧基亞省(Antioquia)殖民建築為主。這些建築採用的建築材料——也是今天有些地區仍舊採用的建築材料,是用來做牆壁的摻有禾稈的黏土砂漿和壓縮過的甘蔗,以及用來做屋頂的粘土瓦。

麥羅埃島考古遺址Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe,蘇丹)是一處位於尼羅河與阿特巴拉河之間的半荒漠景觀,這裏曾是西元前8世紀至西元4世紀間興盛一時的庫施(Kush)王國的中心地帶。遺產由位於尼羅河邊麥羅埃的庫施王城、其附近的宗教遺址納加神廟(Naqa)以及獅子神廟(Musawwarat es Sufra)所組成。這裏曾是佔領埃及近一世紀的統治者發號施令的地方,至今還擁有金字塔、神廟、民居建築以及大型的用水設施等大量遺跡。龐大的庫施帝國一度把疆土擴展到地中海以及非洲心臟地帶,它所留下這一遺址也因此見證了上述兩個地區在藝術、建築、宗教與語言上的交流。

瓦迪拉姆保護區Wadi Rum Protected Area,約旦)作為自然與文化混合遺產列入名錄,位於約旦南部,靠近沙烏地阿拉伯邊界,占地74000公頃。瓦迪拉姆保護區一系列形態各異的沙漠景觀由狹窄的峽谷、天然拱門、高聳的峭壁、坡道、巨型滑坡和洞穴所組成。保護區內的岩畫、碑文和考古遺跡顯示了人類在過去12 000年的時間裏在此的生活,以及與自然環境互動的證據。25000個石刻與20000個碑文為追溯人類思想的發展及早期字母的演變提供了可能。遺址展現了該地區牧業、農業和城市活動的發展。

德國法古斯工廠Fagus Factory, 德國):這一由10座建築物組成的建築群是現代建築與工業設計發展中一個里程碑。它由瓦爾特格羅皮烏斯(Walter Gropius)於1910年左右開始設計。法古斯鞋楦廠位於下薩克森州萊納河畔的阿爾費爾德(Alfeld),廠房建築按照制鞋工業的功能需求設計了各級生產區、倉儲區以及鞋楦發送區。直至今日,這些功能區依然可以正常運轉。開創性地運用功能美學原理,並大面積使用玻璃構造幕牆,法古斯工廠建築群的這一特點對不僅對包豪斯設計學院(Bauhaus school)的作品風格產生了深遠的影響,也成為歐洲及北美建築發展的里程碑。

義大利倫巴第人遺址The Longobards in Italy,義大利)由7組重要建築所組成,包括城堡、教堂、修道院等,分別位於義大利的弗留利(Friuli)、佈雷西亞(Brescia)、卡斯特爾賽普裏歐-托爾巴(Castelseprio - Torba)、斯波萊托(Spoleto)、坎佩洛南克裏通諾(Campello Sul Clitunno)、貝內文托(Benevento)以及蒙特聖安傑洛(Monte San’Angelo)等7座城市。這些建築物代表著倫巴第人的高度成就。倫巴第人最初由北歐移居到義大利,西元6世紀至8世紀,他們曾統治過義大利的大片領土,併發展出屬於自己的獨特文化。倫巴第建築結合了多種風格,吸收了古羅馬、基督教、拜占庭及北歐日爾曼等多種元素和影響,標誌著歐洲古代向中世紀的過渡。這一系列遺址見證了倫巴第在中世紀歐洲基督教精神與文化的發展中所起到的重要作用,特別是對修道運動所給予的推進作用。

正在教科文組織巴黎總部舉行的世界遺產委員會第35屆會議,將對35項申報列入《世界遺產名錄》的自然、混合(自然與文化雙重)及文化遺產進行審議。委員會將在下週一繼續登錄與否的審查工作,此次會議將於629閉幕。

【教科文組織新聞稿 2011.06.25】
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/world_heritage_committee_inscribes_five_new_sites_in_colombia_sudan_jordan_italy_and_germany/


☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆
World Heritage Committee inscribes five new sites in Colombia, Sudan, Jordan, Italy and Germany

The Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia (Colombia), the Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe (Sudan), Wadi Rum Protected Area (Jordan) and The Longobards in Italy, Places of Power , 568 – 774 A.D. (Italy), and the Fagus Factory in Alfeld (Germany), have been added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Inscriptions will continue on Monday.

The Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia (Colombia) - an exceptional example of a sustainable and productive cultural landscape that is unique and representative of a tradition that is a strong symbol for coffee growing areas worldwide - encompasses six farming landscapes, which include 18 urban centres on the foothills of the western and central ranges of the Cordillera de los Andes in the west of the country. It reflects a centennial tradition of coffee growing in small plots in the high forest and the way farmers have adapted cultivation to difficult mountain conditions. The urban areas, mainly situated on the relatively flat tops of hills above sloping coffee fields, are characterized by the architecture of the Antioquian colonization with Spanish influence. Building materials were, and remain in some areas, cob and pleated cane for the walls with clay tiles for the roofs.

The Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe (Sudan), a semi-desert landscape between the Nile and Atbara rivers, was the heartland of the Kingdom of Kush, a major power from the 8th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D. The property consists of the royal city of the Kushite kings at Meroe, near the River Nile, the nearby religious site of Naqa and Musawwarat es Sufra. It was the seat of the rulers who occupied Egypt for close to a century and features, among other vestiges, pyramids, temples and domestic buildings as well as major installations connected to water management. Their vast empire extended from the Mediterranean to the heart of Africa, and the property testifies to the exchange between the art, architectures, religions and languages of both regions.

Wadi Rum Protected Area (Jordan). The 74,000-hectare property, inscribed as a mixed natural and cultural site, is situated in southern Jordan, near the border with Saudi Arabia. It features a varied desert landscape consisting of a range of narrow gorges, natural arches, towering cliffs, ramps, massive landslides and caverns. Petroglyphs, inscriptions and archaeological remains in the site testify to 12,000 years of human occupation and interaction with the natural environment. The combination of 25,000 rock carvings with 20,000 inscriptions trace the evolution of human thought and the early development of the alphabet. The site illustrates the evolution of pastoral, agricultural and urban activity in the region.

The Longobards in Italy, Places of Power, 568 – 774 A.D. (Italy) comprises seven groups of important buildings (including fortresses, churches, and monasteries) throughout the Italian Peninsula. They testify to the high achievement of the Lombards, who migrated from northern Europe and developed their own specific culture in Italy where they ruled over vast territories in the 6th to 8th centuries. The Lombards synthesis of architectural styles marked the transition from Antiquity to the European Middle Ages, drawing on the heritage of Ancient Rome, Christian spirituality, Byzantine influence and Germanic northern Europe. The serial property testifies to the Lombards’ major role in the spiritual and cultural development of Medieval European Christianity, notably by bolstering the monastic movement.

Fagus Factory in Alfeld (Germany) is a 10-building complex - began around 1910 to the design of Walter Gropius, which is a landmark in the development of modern architecture and industrial design. Serving all stages of manufacture, storage and dispatch of lasts used by the shoe industry, the complex, which is still operational today, is situated in Alfeld an der Leine in Lower Saxony. With its groundbreaking vast expanses of glass panels and functionalist aesthetics, the complex foreshadowed the work of the Bauhaus school and is a landmark in the development of architecture in Europe and North America.

A total of 35 nominations, including natural, cultural and mixed properties are being reviewed by the Committee, which is holding its 35th session at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris. The Committee will resume inscriptions on Monday. The session will end on 29 June.

25.06.2011
Source: UNESCOPRESS

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