Serra de Tramuntana_Spain_01.jpg  

西班牙的特拉蒙塔那山區文化景觀

 

【巴黎消息,6月27日】-利亞北部古村落群(阿拉伯敘利亞共和國)、艾恩文化遺址:哈菲特、西裏、比達-賓特-沙特以及綠洲(阿拉伯聯合大公國)波斯花園(伊朗)今天被列入教科文組織《世界遺產名錄》。世界遺產委員會第35屆會議對申報專案的審議工作將延續到28日上午。

敘利亞北部古村落群(Ancient villages of Northern Syria,阿拉伯敘利亞共和國)由位於敘利亞西北部8座公園中的約40多個村莊所組成,是古代晚期至拜占庭時期鄉村生活的不可多得的見證。這些村莊建於西元1至7世紀,後於8至10世紀遭到廢棄,但這裏的景觀保存依然保存完好,民居、寺廟、教堂、蓄水池、澡堂等建築遺存依然可見。村落文化景觀遺存對於展現古羅馬帝國的非基督教時代向拜占庭基督教時代的轉變具有重要的價值。一些遺跡還表明這裏曾使用過水利技術、防護牆以及古羅馬農業規劃手段,進一步展示了當地居民對農業生產技術的駕馭。

艾恩文化遺址:哈菲特、西裏、比達-賓特-沙特以及綠洲(The Cultural Sites of Al Ain,阿拉伯聯合國大公國)由一系列遺產所組成,這些遺產擁有大量史前文化遺跡,為人類自新石器時代起就在沙漠地區活動定居這一事實提供了見證。突出的遺跡包括圓形石墓葬群(約西元前2500年)、水井及大量的土坯建築物,如住宅、塔樓、宮殿及行政建築等。特別是西裏(Hili)的阿夫拉賈(aflaj)精密的灌溉體系是這種源自鐵器時代的灌溉體系的最古老例證之一。艾恩文化遺址的遺產是這一地區由狩獵與採集文化向 定居文化的過渡的重要見證。

波斯園林(The Persian Garden,伊朗)這一文化遺產由分佈在9個省份的9座園林共同組成。它們一方面體現了自西元前6世紀居魯士大帝時期以來形成的波斯園林設計原則,另一方面也展現了波斯園林為適應各種氣候條件而發展出來的多樣風格。波斯園林的主要設計理念突出了對伊甸園及瑣羅亞斯德教四大元素——天空、水、大地、植物的象徵意象,所有園林都分為四個部分,並且水在園林的灌溉與裝飾中發揮了重要的作用。這九座園林分別建設於不同時期,最早的可以追溯到西元前6世紀。樓臺、亭榭、牆垣以及精密的水流灌溉系統是園林的重要特徵。波斯園林對印度及西班牙園林藝術都產生了影響。

特拉蒙塔那山區文化景觀(Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana,西班牙)位於延著馬略卡(Mallorca)島西北海岸線平行伸展的一座單面為懸崖峭壁的山脈之中。數千年在一個資源稀缺的環境中發展起來的農業改變了土地的面貌,並圍繞著源自封建時代的農業單位建立起了一個相互連通的水管理設備網路。這一景觀的特徵由此可以概括為其所擁有的農業梯田、相互連通的包括水車在內的水利設施,以及幹石建築與農場。

阿爾卑斯地區史前湖岸木樁建築(Pile Dwellings around the Alps, 瑞士、奧地利、法國、德國、義大利、斯洛文尼亞)這一遺產包括位於阿爾卑斯山區內、外的湖邊、河岸及濕地邊的111處(其中的56處位於瑞士)史前木樁建築(又稱幹欄建築)遺跡。這些小型定居點建於約西元前5000年至500年。對部分遺址的考古挖掘,已為我們提供了瞭解史前新石器時代及青銅時代歐洲阿爾卑斯山地區人民的生活以及人類社區與周圍環境的互動情況的證據。這是一組保存極其完好、文化內涵豐富的定居點考古遺址,是研究這一地區早期農業社會的最重要的史料來源之一。

賽利米耶清真寺(Selimiye Mosque,土耳其)方形的賽裏米耶清真寺巨大的中央圓頂與四座細長的宣禮塔矗立在埃迪爾內(Edirne)的天際線上,俯瞰著這座前奧斯曼帝國的首都。16世紀著名的奧斯曼建築師希南(Sinan)將這一建築群視為自己最傑出的作品。賽裏米耶清真寺建築群還包括伊斯蘭學校、一個室內市場、守衛室、外庭及圖書館。清真寺使用伊茲尼克最巔峰時期出品的瓷磚作為內飾材料,代表著以這種瓷磚創造的藝術形式至今無人超越的最高成就。賽利米耶清真寺建築群也被視作奧斯曼時期庫裏耶(külliye ,意為一組圍繞著清真寺修建的建築群,並作為一個統一的機構進行管理)建築作品所能達到的最和諧的境界。

正在教科文組織巴黎總部舉行的世界遺產委員會第35屆會議,將對35項申報列入《世界遺產名錄》的自然、複合(自然與文化雙重)及文化遺產進行審議。

教科文組織新聞稿 2011-93
2011.06.27
 


☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆

Six new sites inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List

The Ancient villages of Northern Syria (Syrian Arab Republic), The Cultural Sites of Al Ain (Hafit, Hili, Bidaa Bint Saud and Oases Areas), (United Arab Emirates), and the Persian Garden (Iran), the Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana (Spain), Pile Dwellings around the Alps (Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia) and Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex (Turkey), have been added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Inscriptions are to continue tomorrow morning.

Ancient villages of Northern Syria (Syrian Arab Republic).
Some 40 villages grouped in eight parks situated in north-western Syria provide remarkable testimony to rural life in late Antiquity and during the Byzantine period. Abandoned in the 8th to 10th centuries, the villages, which date from the 1st to 7th centuries, feature a remarkably well preserved landscape and the architectural remains of dwellings, pagan temples, churches, cisterns, bathhouses etc. The relict cultural landscape of the villages also constitutes an important illustration of the transition from the ancient pagan world of the Roman Empire to Byzantine Christianity. Vestiges illustrating hydraulic techniques, protective walls and Roman agricultural plot plans furthermore offer testimony to the inhabitants’ mastery of agricultural production.

The Cultural Sites of Al Ain (Hafit, Hili, Bidaa Bint Saud and Oases Areas, United Arab Emirates) constitute a serial property that testifies to sedentary human occupation of a desert region since the Neolithic period with vestiges of many prehistoric cultures. Remarkable vestiges in the property include circular stone tombs (ca 2500 B.C.), wells and a wide range of adobe constructions: residential buildings, towers, palaces and administrative buildings. Hili moreover features one of the oldest examples of the sophisticated aflaj irrigation system which dates back to the Iron Age. The property provides important testimony to the transition of cultures in the region from hunting and gathering to sedentarization.

The Persian Garden (Iran). The property includes nine gardens in as many provinces. They exemplify the diversity of Persian garden designs that evolved and adapted to different climate conditions while retaining principles that have their roots in the times of Cyrus the Great, 6th century BC. Always divided into four sectors, with water playing an important role for both irrigation and ornamentation, the Persian garden was conceived to symbolize Eden and the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water and plants. These gardens, dating back to different periods since the 6th century BC, also feature buildings, pavilions and walls, as well as sophisticated irrigation systems. They have influenced the art of garden design as far as India and Spain.

The Cultural Landscape of the Serra de Tramuntana (Spain) located on a sheer-sided mountain range parallel to the north-western coast of the island of Mallorca. Millennia of agriculture in an environment with scarce resources has transformed the terrain and displays an articulated network of devices for the management of water revolving around farming units of feudal origins. The landscape is marked by agricultural terraces and inter-connected water works – including water mills - as well as dry stone constructions and farms.

Pile Dwellings around the Alps (Switzerland, Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia). This serial property of 111 small individual sites encompasses the remains of prehistoric pile-dwelling (or stilt house) settlements in and around the Alps built from around 5000 to 500 B.C. on the edges of lakes, rivers or wetlands. Excavations, only conducted in some of the sites, have yielded evidence that provides insight into life in prehistoric times during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Alpine Europe and the way communities interacted with their environment. Fifty-six of the sites are located in Switzerland. The settlements are a unique group of exceptionally well-preserved and culturally rich archaeological sites, which constitute one of the most important sources for the study of early agrarian societies in the region.

Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex (Turkey). The square Mosque with its single great dome and four slender minarets, dominates the skyline of the former Ottoman capital of Edirne. Sinan, the most famous of Ottoman architects in the 16th century, considered the complex, which includes madrasas (Islamic schools), a covered market, clock house, outer courtyard and library, to be his best work. The interior decoration using Iznik tiles from the peak period of their production testifies to an art form that remains unsurpassed in this material. The complex is considered to be the most harmonious expression ever achieved of the Ottoman külliye, a group of buildings constructed around a mosque and managed as a single institution.

A total of 35 nominations, including natural, cultural and mixed properties are being reviewed by the Committee, which is holding its 35th session at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris.

27.06.2011
Source: UNESCOPRESS

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