Mediterranean Agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape_France_01.jpg 

法國地中海農牧文化景觀

 

【巴黎消息,6月28日】 - 布科維納與達爾馬提亞的城市民居(烏克蘭)、阿爾泰山脈岩畫(蒙古)、 喀斯和塞文--地中海農牧文化景(法國)以及萊昂大教堂(尼加拉瓜),今天被列入教科文組織《世界遺產名錄》。新增遺產的名單現已完成,不久將正式公佈。

布科維納與達爾馬提亞的城市民居(The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans,烏克蘭)代表著捷克建築師約瑟夫•赫拉夫卡(Josef Hlavka)在1864年至1882年間創造的建築風格所產生的強大綜合影響力。這一遺產是19世紀歷史建築的傑出典範,包括以穹頂十字型為主要造型的神學院教堂、花園及公園為主體的神學院與修道院。這一建築群體現了拜占庭時期及其以後歷史時期對此處建築和文化所產生的影響,同時也表明在哈布斯堡王朝統治期間東正教的影響力依然強大,反映出了奧匈帝國所持有的宗教寬容政策。

阿爾泰山脈岩畫群(Petroglyphs Complexes of the Mongolian Altai,蒙古):在三處遺址發現的大量石刻遺跡與隨葬的紀念碑展現了12000多年來人類文化在蒙古國的發展。最早的岩畫表明有一時期(11,000 - 6000年),該地區還部分覆蓋著森林,此處的山谷為獵人提供了大型狩獵的場所。其後,阿爾泰山地景觀據推斷已經變為今天的山地草原,這一時期的岩畫表明放牧逐漸成為主導的生活方式。最晚期的岩畫作於西元前1000年早期及斯基泰時期與後突厥汗國時期(西元7-8世紀),展示了此處的生活方式向馬上遊牧生活的過渡。這些岩刻為我們瞭解北亞地區的史前社會提供了富有價值的史料。

喀斯和塞文--地中海農牧文化景觀(The Causses and the Cévennes, Mediterranean Agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape,法國):占地302319公頃,位於法國中南部山脈與深谷交錯的地區,農牧系統與自然環境之間的紐帶在這一地區得到了展現,特別是在這一地區夏季上山放牧時,羊群走的山路更是這一紐帶的直接反映。景區內的村莊以及喀斯梯田上的堅固的石頭農舍體現了11世紀大修道院組織形式。洛澤爾山也位於景觀區內,是最後幾個還在實行夏季遊牧的地區之一。

萊昂大教堂(León Cathedral,尼加拉瓜):修建於1747年至19世紀初,其設計者是瓜地馬拉建築師迪埃哥•何塞•珀雷斯•埃斯基韋爾(Diego José de Porres Esquivel),建築的風格表現為巴羅克到新古典主義的過渡,也可以說是折衷主義的風格。大教堂的建築特點主要體現在簡約的內部裝飾以及豐富的自然採光。但在聖殿的拱頂部分使用了豐富華麗的裝飾。大教堂內安置著重要的藝術作品,包括佛蘭德木祭壇,以及由尼加拉瓜藝術家安東尼奧•薩里亞(Antonio Sarria,19世紀末至20世紀初)創作的以基督受難苦路十四站為主題的數幅繪畫作品。

正在教科文組織巴黎總部舉行的世界遺產委員會第35屆會議,對35項申報列入《世界遺產名錄》的自然、混合(自然與文化雙重)及文化遺產進行審議。

教科文組織新聞稿2011-95
2011.06.28



☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆☆
Four new sites inscribed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List

The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans (Ukraine), the Petroglyphs Complexes of the Mongolian Altai (Mongolia), The Causses and the Cévennes, Mediterranean Agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape (France) and León Cathedral (Nicaragua) - have been added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. The full list of new inscriptions which is now complete will be given out shortly.

The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans (Ukraine)
represents a masterful synergy of architectural styles built by Czech architect Josef Hlavka from 1864 to 1882. The property, an outstanding example of 19th-century historicist architecture, also includes a seminary and monastery and is dominated by the domed, cruciform Seminary Church with a garden and park. The complex expresses architectural and cultural influences from the Byzantine period onward and embodies the powerful presence of the Orthodox Church during Habsburg rule, reflecting the Austro-Hungarian Empire policy of religious tolerance.

Petroglyphs Complexes of the Mongolian Altai (Mongolia). The numerous rock carvings and funerary monuments found in these three sites illustrate the development of culture in Mongolia over a period of 12,000 years. The earliest images reflect a time (11,000 – 6,000 BC) when the area was partly forested and the valley provided a habitat for hunters of large game. Later images show the transition to herding as the dominant way of life. The most recent images show the transition to a horse-dependent nomadic lifestyle during the early 1st millennium BC, the Scythian period and the later Turkic period (7th and 8th centuries AD). The carvings contribute valuably to our understanding of pre-historic communities in northern Asia.

The Causses and the Cévennes, Mediterranean Agro-pastoral Cultural Landscape (France). The 302,319 hectare property, in the southern part of central France, is a mountain landscape interspersed by deep valleys that is representative of the relationship between agro-pastoral systems and their biophysical environment, notably through drailles or drove roads. Villages and substantial stone farmhouses on deep terraces of the Causses reflect the organization of large abbeys from the 11th century. Mont Lozère, inside the property, is one of the last places where summer transhumance is still practiced.

León Cathedral (Nicaragua). Built between 1747 and the early 19th century to the design of Guatemalan architect Diego José de Porres Esquivel, the monument expresses the transition from Baroque to Neoclassical architecture and its style can be considered to be eclectic. The Cathedral is characterized by the sobriety of its interior decoration and the abundance of natural light. The vault of the Sanctuary, however, presents rich ornamentation. The Cathedral houses important works of art including a wooden Flemish altarpiece, and paintings of the 14 stations of the Way of the Cross by Nicaraguan artist Antonio Sarria (late 19th and early 20th centuries).

28.06.2011
Source: UNESCOPRESS

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